عنوان مقاله [English]
Imbalances and regional imbalances are one of the major challenges of spatial development in Iran which has led to the formation of inefficient and disrupted urban system in the country with the expansion of urbanization and increasing number of cities. The cities of Zanjan province, like most of the provinces in the country, have regional imbalances such as the imbalance of the province's spatial organization. This research aims to understand the differences and changes of the urban system, It has studied the transmutation of the spatial organization of the urban system of Zanjan province during the period 1335to1395. In this research, descriptive-analytical research method and documentary-library data collection method were used. Descriptive-analytical method and library and documentation information using quantitative models: Urban Primacy Index, Two City Index, Four City Index, Mahta Four City Index, Todim model, digital elevation model were used. The results show that spatial imbalance is evident in Zanjan province's urban system and despite 21 urban points in this province, urban growth and development is more specific to the four main cities of Zanjan, Qidar, Khorramdareh and Abhar. Over time, unlike the first urban decline in Zanjan province, the urban system tends to be in equilibrium. Despite the increase in the number of small towns in order to reduce the imbalance in the urban system of the province, we see a large distance from these cities with the first city leading the urban system to imbalance. have given; Other factors that exacerbate this inequality and imbalance include geographical factor, budget allocation in provincial cities, inadequate population distribution and concentration of facilities and infrastructure in Zanjan city and its undesirable role in provincial urban system and insignificant role of cities. And their almost one-sided relationship with the center of the province, the city of Zanjan.
Introduction: Global process of rapid urbanization, with the industrial revolution in the nineteenth century, countries in the developed and the mid-twentieth century in developing countries within a relatively short time strong growth was, since the beginning of the industrial revolution in Europe, the distribution range in the population of this country that it can be Cited the deviation of the European urban system as many of the current big cities were promoted to higher hierarchies than small towns or settlements. In fact, what happened in the developed countries exhibited a slow and orderly adaptation to the changes in the spatial structure of the urban system with a change in energy and infrastructure resources, and therefore the urban system in the developed countries is more orderly. Therefore, the present study attempts to study the developments of Zanjan Province in one of the Iranian provinces by using accurate statistical information and GIS system and finally to present some solutions to reduce its challenges. Zanjan Province Urban Space Agency is seeking answers to the following questions: How is Zanjan Province Urban Space Administration currently? What factors have contributed to the transformation of the spatial organization of the urban system of Zanjan province?
Methodology: Due to the nature of the research topic and objectives, the approach of this research is descriptive-analytical and applied. Librarian and documentary studies have been used for data collection. To analyze the urban system transformation in Zanjan province, regional planning models and techniques such as Urban Primacy Index, Two City Index, Four City Index, Mahta Four City Index, Todim model, digital elevation model were used.
Results and discussion: The results of this study show that urbanization ratio in Zanjan province has been fluctuating and urbanization ratio has been increasing during the period 5-6 and has increased from 4.9% at the beginning of the period to 4.9% at the end. It has reached the population of 3 Zanjan province in 2 urban areas of the province has increased compared to the previous period. The number of urban areas from 3-point city in 1335 to 21 the city in 1395 increased own again, based on the results of the rank - size, population of the city as the first town in 1395, four times the population of Second City (Abhor) and 850 times in 21 times (Nikpay) is. According to the optimistic results of the Zipov relation calculations, the first city must be five times as large as Abhar, which is not the case. The results of the Bojgarenbeh and Shabo method show that the role and function of most urban settlements in the region are industrial functions, services, agriculture and multi-role, and the study area lacks urban location with severe industrial function. Dundee cities with industrial function and Qidar city are the only urban point in Zanjan province with service function and dominated by three cities of Zanjan, Abhar, and Khorramdareh as the most populated urban settlements with one to three ranks in functional hierarchy. They have a commercial role and function, while out of 3 cities, 5 cities in the urban system of Zanjan province have an agricultural function in the geographical distribution of cities and localization of cities in Zanjan province is considered as a high area in the country. That covers half of the province's altitude over1800 meters. The cities of Zanjan, Abhar, Khorramdareh, Hadij, Sein Qaleh and Soltanieh are cities located in the northwest-southeast communication axis and affected by the communication factor of accommodation and the opportunity to grow and expand their functions. The cities of Zanjan, Abhar, Khorramdareh, Hadji, Saini Qala, and Soltanieh are cities located in the northwest-southeast communication axis and have been impacted by the relocation factor and have the opportunity to grow and expand their operations. 46.3 percent in Zanjan province and 53.7 percent in other cities the city centers, especially the three cities of Abhar, Khodabandeh and Khorramdare, accounted for 22/5percent and the other two cities accounted for only 26/8 percent of the current budget. By using the Todim model, Zanjan province has been ranked in service level for year1395, which shows that among Zanjan provinces, Zanjan level 1, Abhar, Khorramdareh, Qadar, Hidaj, Soltanieh in level 2. The results also show that 6 cities the first cities of the province are classified as semi-developed cities in terms of the level of enjoyment of the index and the number of 9 cities is in the second level as semi-developed cities.
Conclusion: Investigation of the spatial organization of the urban system of Zanjan province with regard to the special situation has more capabilities and capacities with spatial imbalance so that concentration of population establishment and activities with regard to the geographical factor of Zanjan province in the main axis between metropolitan cities of Tehran and Tabriz and other cities of the province. The benefits of development are far-fetched. According to the first urban indicators, one of the characteristics of the urban system of Zanjan province is the existence of spatial imbalances and dominant cities, because the first urban index and other indices in the period of 1335-1395 years indicate the existence of this phenomenon in the system. It is a city of Zanjan province which has tended towards a balanced distribution in recent years. The rank-size distribution graph urban area in the period between 1395-1335 shows that the urban spatial distribution of the region is close to a normal distribution. In Zanjan province, inequality and lack of equilibrium in optimal distribution of facilities and resources by concentrating facilities and services in a single dominant city in the province has caused divisions and divisions between cities; Therefore, the political, administrative, economic, physical and infrastructural characteristics of Zanjan city, the different flows of population, income, capital, commodity flows unilaterally from the other parts of the city and the urban system settlements of Zanjan to the first city. Considerable national and government budgets for these cities and citizens, especially Zanjan, are also a significant part of other cities and villages' financial resources due to the prevailing conditions for Zanjan city to receive goods and services, and this has led to this The city has the highest absorption power at the provincial level Be bottomless. As a result, the following are required to improve conditions:
A comprehensive look at all parts of the province, especially mid and small urban areas, to grow them to reduce the gap between the provincial cities and the central city Improving the quantitative and qualitative level of infrastructure, services, demographic and natural constraints and barriers in the area;
Strengthen small and mid-sized cities such as Mahonshan, Dundee, Nickpay, etc. through regional planning and policymaking
Prioritize the creation of industrial activities by encouraging policies in small towns
Creation of a strong communication network between the partial cores in interaction with the regional core