بنیان های ژئواکونومیکی و ژئوکالچری واگرایی ژئوپلیتیکی منطقه خاورمیانه در بحران های منطقه‌ای

نوع مقاله : مقاله های برگرفته از پایان نامه

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترای جغرافیای سیاسی، واحد گرمسار، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، گرمسار، ایران.

2 عضو هیأت علمی و مدیر گروه آموزشی جغرافیا دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحدگرمسار، ایران

3 استاد جغرافیای سیاسی، واحد علوم و تحقیقات تهران، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، تهران، ایران.

4 دانشیار جغرافیای انسانی، دانشگاه آزاد اسلامی، واحد شهر ری

چکیده

خاورمیانه همواره با بحران و چالش مواجه بوده است و کشورهای منطقه به دلیل بدبینی­های اقتصادی و سیاسی – جغرافیایی و نیز فرهنگی رویکردهای جداگانه­ای را برای مدیریت بحران­ها اتخاذ کرده­اند. سؤال اصلی مقاله حاضر این است که بنیان­های ژئواکونومیکی و ژئوکالچری واگرایی ژئوپلیتیکی منطقه خاورمیانه در برابر بحران­های منطقه­ کدام­اند؟ این تحقیق بر مبنای هدف کاربردی و بر اساس روش توصیفی- پیمایشی است. جامعه آماری پژوهش نیز صاحب‌نظران حوزه جغرافیای سیاسی بوده که با روش نمونه‌گیری هدفمند تعداد 220 نفر به‌ عنوان جامعه آماری انتخاب شدند که با استفاده از جدول مورگان 140 نفر به ‌عنوان نمونه انتخاب گردیدند. برای جمع‌آوری اطلاعات از پرسشنامه‌ای متشکل از 24 سؤال استفاده شد که برای سنجش پایایی از روش آلفای کرونباخ استفاده ‌شده و برای تجزیه ‌و تحلیل آماری به دلیل نرمال بودن داده‌ها از آزمون تحلیل عاملی تائیدی با استفاده از نرم‌افزار LISREL و برای رتبه‌بندی آن‌ها از نرم‌افزار TOPSIS استفاده گردید. نتایج مقاله نشان می­دهد که دلیل واگرایی کشورهای منطقه در برابر بحران‌های منطقه‌ای این است که مؤلفه‌های شکل دهنده این بحران‌ها ریشه در موجودیت، هویت و نیز فرهنگ و اقتصاد نامتجانس کشورهای منطقه دارند و بنابراین همگرایی را از مسیر خود منحرف می‌کنند.

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Geoeconomic and Geocultural Foundations of the Geopolitical Divergence of the Middle East in Regional Crisis.

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ahmad Fathi 1
  • heidar lotfi 2
  • Ezatollah Ezzati 3
  • Majid vali shareeatpanahi 4
1 PhD Student of Political Geography, Garmsar Branch, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran.
2 Assistant Professor and Teaching Geography Category manager, Islamic Azad University, Garmsar, Iran
3 Political Science Geography, Tehran Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
4 Associate Professor of Geography and Rural Planning, Islamic Azad University, Yadegar Imam Branch, Rey.
چکیده [English]

Introduction
Middle Eastern countries face many internal problems such as terrorism, poverty and social inequality. A number of countries in the region have historically been at war with each other. The presence of supra-regional powers has also worsened the situation. In such an insecure environment, countries' military spending naturally increases. The situation is not normal in the Middle East, from Palestine to Syria, Egypt, Libya, Turkey, Iraq, Pakistan and Afghanistan. Iraq is involved in ISIS. Syria is embroiled in a civil war. Libya has stabilized despite removing Gaddafi.
Methodology
Countries in the Middle East region include: Iran, Jordan, Occupied Palestine, United Arab Emirates, Bahrain, Turkey, Palestine, Syria, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Qatar, Kuwait, Lebanon, Egypt, Yemen. The name of the Middle East region is one of those letters that has nothing to do with the history, culture and identity of the people and nations living in this part of the globe.
This research is based on an applied purpose and a descriptive-survey method. The statistical population of the study was experts in the field of political geography that 220 people were selected as a statistical population by purposive sampling method and 140 people were selected as a sample using Morgan table. A questionnaire consisting of 24 questions was used to collect data. Cronbach's alpha method was used to assess the reliability and confirmatory factor analysis test using LISREL software was used for statistical analysis due to the normality of the data and TO software was used for their ranking by IS software. Took. The results of the article show that the reason for the divergence of the countries in the region in the face of regional crises is that the components that form these crises are rooted in the heterogeneous existence, identity and culture and economy of the countries in the region and thus divert convergence.
Results and Discussion
The structure of the Middle East is endogenous, conflicting and anarchic; As a result, crises are rapidly gaining military dimension and are spiraling out of government control; In a way, the governments of the region are not able to manage and control the crisis due to lack of consensus. The source of this unstable and unbalanced situation are various factors that increase and intensify the effect of each other in influencing and mutually influencing each other. These crises, which disrupt one or more sub-systems of the system, continue to put the entire social system at risk of inefficiency and collapse. The diffuse nature of the crises in the Middle East has led to the emergence of one crisis after another. Accordingly, as long as the roots of the crisis, or in other words, the super-crises, exist in the valley of the region, it will not be possible to achieve a crisis-free Middle East. Middle Eastern countries have characteristics that act as security interests in convergence, regionalism, and efforts to build a collective security system. Ethnic and tribal conflicts and divisions, religious differences and dissatisfaction with the imposed borders are among the factors that cause the emergence of regional crises. The imbalance of power, the intervention of great powers, and the existence of insurmountable conflicts in the interests of actors that arise from identity challenges, bring regional rivalries into confrontational arenas. The Middle East crises, in addition to their common roots, also have common features. In most of these crises, multiple actors intervene nationally, regionally and internationally, and this multiplicity of actors complicates the crisis and makes it more difficult to resolve. The acting of non-state actors, who are usually affiliated with one of the regional or international power poles and may have risen from the transnational to the transnational level in certain circumstances, is another feature of recent crises in the Middle East. Crises in the Middle East occur first in the social or economic spheres and then, turning into a political crisis, go through a transformation crisis into a security crisis, and ultimately end in war in most cases. The axis of resistance, which is considered to be the ally of the regions of Iran, has taken place and has targeted the power of the regions of the Islamic Republic of Iran and the axis of resistance. Also, all these crises were manifestations of civil war. This is more the case in Syria and less so in Iraq and Yemen; But in any case, the war between the parties involved in the crisis has spread to cities, streets and alleys.
Conclusion
The Middle East, as the center of the world's energy throughout the twentieth century, and doubly at the beginning of the new century, has been the site of numerous upheavals and crises, the effects of which have often transcended regional levels. The Middle East region, especially since the end of World War II, because of its importance in the world economy, became more and more interested in the great powers and forced them to participate in and influence the developments in the region through various tools. To use. In the twentieth century, the region was a major source of energy for the world, and on the other hand, it has been the center of some crises and tensions, mainly due to the presence of Israel and the greed of some major powers, especially the United States. For this reason, developments in the Middle East are tied to global security as well as the international political economy. That is why the Middle East has long been the focus of the great powers, which has led them to offer different definitions of the Middle East in accordance with their broad interests and needs.
In addition to its strategic location, the Middle East region has the largest energy reserves, which shows the interdependence between the largest producers, industrialized and developed countries, and the governments of the region; Unfortunately, due to lack of self-awareness and lack of a common regional strategy, Middle Eastern countries have not been able to use their position and resources to advance and secure their national interests and independence, and remain dependent on the West and the hegemonic system. This region is the center of the main international conflicts in the decades (Israeli Arabs) and in recent years (Iraq and Afghanistan front). The terrorist attack on the United States prompted American experts and statesmen to seek out the main sources of terrorism. After the events of September, the Middle East was introduced to the world as an unprecedented source of terrorism; and this time the domination campaigns in the form of the US-led fight against terrorism began at the beginning of the 21st century with the invasion of Afghanistan and then Iraq. In 2010, the wave of Islamic awakening in the Arab world in the Middle East faced many changes and events that continue to this day (2014) and take many victims in Syria and Iraq. Countless terrorist and armed groups have emerged, and suicide and terrorist attacks are being transmitted daily in what is now called the Middle East, the most critical region in the world.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Middle East
  • Divergence
  • Crisis
  • Geoeconomics
  • and Geocalcher
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