عنوان مقاله [English]
The shape of housing and the physical texture of a rural settlement are influenced by various factors, including climatic, natural, socio-cultural and economic factors, all of which affect each other. The impact of these factors on the shape of human settlements has been studied in different ways and in several studies, but this is while the impact of economic factors, which is derived from the type of livelihood of residents, on the shape of the settlement . Ha, less explored. Accordingly, in the present study, this issue has been studied and by extracting the dominant living patterns in a village on the Persian Gulf, the effect of these patterns has been analyzed by the formation of rural housing in three scales: large, medium and small. In this research, Bustano village of Bandar Abbas city in Hormozgan province has been selected as a case study. According to the research findings, among the residents of this village, there are three patterns of livelihood, including livelihood based on fishing, livelihood based on trade and livelihood of workers. During the process of physical development of the village, the living space of the residents of these three living patterns has been formed in the form of three distinct textures, including the old texture in the sea, the middle texture and the new texture of the village. The research method in this research is descriptive-analytical based on logical reasoning in which the method of collecting information includes direct observation, interviews with residents and also reviewing the documents in the relevant organs. Finally, this study, while confirming the hypothesis of the influence of rural settlements on the living patterns of their inhabitants, concluded that in rural settlements, the use of flexible spaces with the ability to perform functional diversity, increase the ratio of space to mass in The system of configuration of houses, as well as the construction of warehouses and suitable spaces for the preparation, separation and storage of manufactured products, are among the most important requirements that are formed under the influence of livelihood in the space organization of houses.
Spatial analysis of indigenous settlements is a topic that has a lot to do with recognizing the cultural characteristics of its inhabitants. However, according to the existing literature, culture itself is a comprehensive concept that includes a set of different factors such as worldview, values, perceptions, norms, lifestyle and system of activities (Rapaport, 2003). The combination of these factors creates a tangled whole through which it affects all material and spiritual aspects of human life, including art, ethics, law, customs and all human artifacts(Ashoori, 2002). In this regard, the way of life of individuals is one of the objective aspects of the crystallization of culture in the material life of the inhabitants of an area, which is related to the concept of lifestyle (Life style) It is related as one of the shaping aspects of culture. This concept means the tools, strategies and methods that people use to provide for their livelihood and includes items such as agriculture, animal husbandry, fishing, industry and .... These different ways of living create different ways of life according to which urban, rural and nomadic life can be distinguished. In this regard, rural settlements are one of the types of housing that in different areas, depending on the environmental, cultural and social characteristics of the inhabitants of those areas, takes different forms. One of the factors that is influential in shaping the space system of such a settlement is the type of livelihood of its inhabitants. Accordingly, the present study seeks to investigate the different methods and mechanisms for the impact of rural housing on the type of livelihood of its residents by claiming that the livelihood of rural residents is effective in the form of rural settlements.
The present study seeks to investigate how the shape of a rural settlement is affected by the type of livelihood of its inhabitants. Accordingly, the livelihood of the residents is considered as an independent variable and the physical design of the settlement is considered as a dependent variable. The physical characteristics of a village can be analyzed in three scales, which include macro, medium and micro scales. On a large scale, the general characteristics of the texture are examined, including how the texture is granulated, the network of passages, the elongation and the direction of village development. In the medium scale, the general characteristics of residential units are analyzed, including the direction of the house, construction pattern, mass and space system, as well as neighborhood relations, and finally, on a micro scale, factors such as the spatial organization of the house, functional areas , Building materials and systems, entrances and openings in houses are examined. By analyzing these cases, while knowing the lifestyle of residents, a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between living patterns and how space is organized at different levels of this residential system can be achieved.
The present research in the field section has collected and analyzed the relevant information by case study method and using tools such as direct observation, interviewing residents and sketching. The interviewees were selected from among the people who have lived in this village for a long time. Finally, the findings of the study were analyzed using a comparative study method and logical reasoning in relation to the theoretical framework presented in this study, during which the impact of livelihoods of Bostano villagers in terms of morphology and typology in the three seaside textures. , The middle texture of the village and the new texture were analyzed.
The impact of the settlement form in the village of Bustano on the Persian Gulf can be extended to the livelihoods of their residents as follows:
The main core of the village is linearly formed by the sea. The reason for this is the tendency of the inhabitants to fishing and fishing, which from the beginning of the formation of this village, has been considered as the dominant model of livelihood of the inhabitants of this village. Therefore, at the macro level, the segregation of tissue at the seafront is linear and spaced (About 4 meters) Made of each other. The presence of these 4-meter passages in the vicinity of the plots, in addition to passing the sea breeze and creating ventilation, allows the passage of fishing boats and their transfer from home and sea and vice versa. Therefore, with such passages leading to the sea in the vicinity of residential parts, it is possible to move the boat into the house and unload the catch and separate it at home and prepare for transfer to the market. In the middle and new contexts of the village, due to the change in the living pattern of the residents from fishing to jobs such as labor, sales, etc., there was no need to build roads of this width in the north-south direction. Therefore, the width of these passages has been reduced from 4 meters to 2 meters, which provides only for the use of the passage and also the role of ventilation in the tissue. It should be noted that due to rising land prices and population growth in the new context, the size of the plots has decreased and in some cases the north-south passages have been removed. Therefore, at the macro level of the village, it can be said that due to the livelihood of most residents to fishing and fishing, the basic texture of the village has been formed on the seafront. Also, in this context, a network of passages has been created in order to transfer fishing equipment from the sea to the house and vice versa, in order to transfer fishing into the house, perpendicular to the sea (north-south).
On the May scale, the most important effect that the shape of rural settlements has taken from the livelihood pattern is the increase in the ratio of space to mass to more than 50%, which is reflected in the yard and open space. Therefore, the yard, as a flexible functional space, allows the family to perform various types of livelihood activities. On the other hand, since fishing is the most dominant livelihood model for the residents of this village, and on the other hand, it is a group activity (because at least a few people are needed to lift the net from the sea), so this This has increased the spirit of cooperation and cooperation between the residents of this village with each other. In this way, in a daily fishing, the men of several families have to cooperate with each other and go to the sea together for fishing This also affects the relationships between their women; In this way, after transferring the catch and its depot in the yard of one of the houses, the women next door gather in that house and try to separate the catch. Therefore, in this village, the yard is the main element in shaping the space organization of the house and plays an important role in providing livelihood for residents; Thus, in the old context, where the livelihood of the inhabitants is based on fishing, the yard is considered as a space for fish depot, net repair, boat park, fuel depot and fishing equipment depot. In the middle context, where the predominant pattern of household livelihood is based on male workers outside the home, the yard is used as a place to make handicraft products for sale in the market, and in the new context, where the predominant pattern of livelihood is based on trade and sales. The yard is used as a place to store sex and separate them. Also, the provision of warehouses for storing goods and products is another living space that can be seen in most of the houses in the village of Bustano. In addition, a limited number of residents of the village are engaged in livestock maintenance as part of their livelihood, which has led to the construction of cages for these animals in part of the yard
Rural housing is the manifestation of lifestyles, livelihoods, and ultimately the forces and factors influencing the environment and socio-economic trends. Among these, the productive and livelihood nature is one of the most important features of rural housing in different parts of the country, which is effective at different levels of the formation of this settlement. Accordingly, the present study investigates how lifestyle methods affect the form of rural settlements in the village of Bustano on the Persian Gulf. The results show that the texture of the village at the macro level, following the dominant pattern of livelihood based on fishing, has been formed in the sea and linearly. In this residential model, in order to transfer the boat and other fishing equipment into the house, special passages have been formed in the vicinity of the residential grains, which, while having a climatic function (in order to pass the air flow into the tissue), can move the boat from the sea to Provides the inside of the house and vice versa. At the middle level, allocating more than 50% of the land area to the yard for livelihood activities in the yard is another manifestation of the impact of housing on the living patterns in this village. Also, the cooperation and cooperation of the neighbors to carry out livelihood affairs collectively in this village has become a factor to increase social solidarity in this village. Finally, on a micro scale, the provision of spaces for depots and segregation of fishing, repair of fishing nets, boat parking and fuel storage is the dominant model of spatial organization of yards by the sea. In addition to this, the provision of spaces for storage and storage of goods, goods and handicrafts of villagers in the villages along the Persian Gulf, is another space requirement of the yard space organization in the houses in this village.
Finally, this study, while confirming the hypothesis of the influence of rural settlements on the livelihood patterns of their inhabitants, concluded that in rural settlements, the use of flexible spaces with the ability to perform functional diversity, increasing the ratio of space to mass in The configuration system of houses as well as the construction of warehouses and suitable spaces for the preparation, separation and depot of manufactured products are among the most important requirements that are formed under the influence of livelihood in the spatial organization of these houses.