عنوان مقاله [English]
In the today world, economic development is necessary for any country as a goal. Economic development It shows the efficiency of the national government in each country. On this base, economic development linked whit economic security. But, security have other dimensions, for example environment security. Modernity has been oblivious to the environment for three centuries in the process of development, and then, humans understand that economic development as before, can damage to environment. Therefore, development theories on the base of link economic development and environment, created sustainable development. Pay attention to link of economic development and environment in this context, and sustainable development in developing areas and countries is importance. The Persian Gulf region is a developing area and must attention to sustainable development, specially whit it’s the Petroleum Economy that is Rentier. Therefore, the question of article is “What is economic development effect on environment security of the Persian Gulf region?”. The method research of article is descriptive method. The goal of article, is survey about link of two important situations in this region, that is economic development and environment security. The overall result of the article shows that economic development in the non- sustainable development form cause damage to environment security Persian Gulf region.
The Persian Gulf region, is an important and strategic region in the world. There are eight coastal countries in the Persian Gulf region, which are: Islamic Republic of Iran, Saudi Arabia, United Arabs Emirate, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar and Oman. All of this countries, are developing countries, that their development, especially their economic development, are dependent to oil and gas income. In the Persian Gulf region, all of the countries have big source of oil and gas, and all of them are fossil energy producer. In this countries, oil and gas income caused their economy structure are rentier economy and this structure, it has made these governments irresponsible. Also, these unresponsive governments do not pay attention to sustainable development. So, in the Persian Gulf region, environment is damage and under threat. In the other hand, environment security in the Persian Gulf region by irresponsible governments whit their development policy, especially economic development policy is under threat. Therefore, the question of article is “What is economic development effect on environment security of the Persian Gulf region?
Method research of this paper is descriptive method. The information collected in the paper was quantitative and qualitative. Its data were obtained from official international institutions such as the World Bank, etc., and the study area of the paper is the Persian Gulf region. The Persian Gulf is a semi-enclosed sea and is one of the world's oldest waterways located in the Middle East.
The finding of paper shown that A large amount of gross domestic production (GDP) of Persian Gulf countries are depend to sales fossil energy source including gas and especially crude oil. So, economic development rate of this countries are depending to oil price in international markets and the amount of their oil and gas exports. In example decrease of oil price in markets caused Saudi Arabia has fifty billion dollars’ deficit in 2020 (Rashad, 2019: 1), and covid-19 caused increase this deficit for this country. Or in Iran case, United State sanctions caused decrease of oil and gas exports, and decrease income of Iran. The depending of economic development caused rentier petroleum state in the Persian Gulf are irresponsible, especially about environment and do not attention to sustainable development. The Persian Gulf is the world's most polluted body of water. Discharge of oil stains and industrial wastes have increased the fluctuations of temperature as well as salinity. The facts indicate that, in addition to such complications, particularly the marine ecosystems of western part of Persian Gulf such as coral reefs are severely disturbed and are being degraded. One of the reasons is built of artificial islands.
The facts suggest that artificial islands of Dubai which are created as the result of developmental policies of Dubai, have threatened the environmental security of Persian Gulf and have caused alarming environmental consequences for other coastal states. although the Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982), has given coastal states the rights to construct artificial islands, it has strictly limited such operations to the protection of marine environment as well as the rights of other coastal states. But the UAE has ignored the convention by building artificial islands and damage to Persian Gulf environment. Also, oil and gas extraction by Persian Gulf countries, without of attention to sustainable development are caused damaged to environment of this sea. One issue associated with the increased production is the extremely damaging effects due to the activities related to exploration, production and distribution of oil on the environment. Oil spills, damaged land, accidents and fires, and incidents of air and water pollution have all been recorded at various times and places. Intentional 1991Gulf Oil Spill, the largest oil spill in history with an estimated release of 6–8 million barrels of Kuwait Crude oil, caused large–scale devastation to the marine environment of Kuwait and Saudi Arabia. This Spill is very damage to environment of the Persian Gulf region for many years.
Therefore, the overall result of the article shows that:
Gulf is located within the richest oil province in the world which hosts more than 67% of the world oil reserve. The challenge to the Gulf States is to meet world energy demands and the conventional solution for this challenge is to increase the production. But increase the production by region countries cause damage to environment of this sea.
The states of the Persian Gulf region whit petroleum Incomes are irresponsible governments and do not attention to sustainable development, especially in economic development. This subject cause damage to environment of this region.
The Persian Gulf region countries, product many greenhouse gas in their economic development, variety of transport including in road and sea transports, in industrial presses, in trending and etc., because these countries have many fossil energy and And at a cheap price that they also subsidize.
In the last decades, Gulf States have paid much attention in minimizing adverse impact on the environment by conforming to current best practice and by setting and enforcing regulations. But this has not been enough to create environmental security in the Persian Gulf. the countries of region must be attention to Kuwait Regional Convention for Co-operation on the Protection of the Marine Environment from Pollution (ROPME) seriously for create environmental security in Persian Gulf Region.