عنوان مقاله [English]
Methods of data collection and information include field methods for collecting data and library methodology for studying the literature and theoretical foundations of the research. The sample size is determined by the Cochran formula, which shows the maximum sample size. Regarding the research population, 964 households were selected, among which 350 families were selected as samples. The questionnaire was designed in 4 dimensions and 32 items based on the Likert spectrum. Structural equations modeling has been used to analyze the data and to investigate the relationship between factors and determine the share of each of them. Data analysis was performed using SPSS 22 and 24 AMOS software, and also for spatial analysis, the IDW interpolation method was used in ARC GIS software. The findings of the study show that according to the findings of the structural equation model of AMOS, in the study area, the greatest effect of urban creep on the areas of the annexation of the village in the field of economic dimension (with factor load 2.63), in the second degree social-cultural dimension (with load Factor 2.21) were in the third degree physical dimension (with a factor load of 1.97) and in the fourth order administrative-administrative dimension (with a factor load of 1.15). According to the findings of the spatial analysis of the research, the villages that are closer to the city of Marivan are more affected by the changes in urban creep than the distant villages.
The urban creep pattern of the 1960s has been taken seriously in urban discourse and has long been regarded as a phenomenon specific to American cities due to the abundance of cheap land, the overcrowding of roads, and the over-production of cars in the country. It happened. But today it has become a global phenomenon that most developed and developing countries are facing (Meshkini, 2013: 53). The most important cause of this phenomenon can be considered the increasing population growth and increasing rural-urban migration. As the rapid growth of urban population causes problems such as marginalization, rising housing prices, lack of services and facilities, environmental pollution, uneven development of the city, disruption, etc., the issue of attention to the spatial structure of the city and Finding solutions to control and guide the transformation of the shape of the city is of great importance (Varesi, 2012: 137). So that metropolitan areas have grown rapidly within rural areas, and rural settlements have been rapidly migrating. In addition, during the second half of the 20th century, migration to the city center was reversed, and the population flowed out of the city and into the suburbs. This has further complicated urban-rural land use issues and has emerged as a fundamental issue for change in metropolitan areas (Krieger, 1999: 15-16). This affects the economic, social, cultural, spatial and physical dimensions of the near and far rural centers, which in many cases are due to the surges of these flows, those villages which are in the closest distance to the cities. Accepts the type of effects. There are numerous consequences of sprawling urban spatial-spatial dimensions on peripheral villages, the most important of which are changes in land use and land use. (Parry, 1990; Meyer & Turner, 1994).
The purpose of this study is applied and in terms of method and nature of data collection descriptive - survey and field. Documentary-library method was used for data collection in the theoretical section and interview and questionnaire-based survey method was used in the field. The statistical population of the study consists of attachment villages to the city of Marivan, consisting of 964 households (based on 2016 statistics). The simple random sampling method and the Cochran formula, which shows the maximum number of samples, were used to determine the sample size. 350 households were selected as the sample size. Structural equations were used to analyze the data and investigate the relationship between the factors and determine their contribution. Structural equation modeling is a comprehensive statistical method for testing hypotheses about the relationships between observed variables and present variables. It should be noted that for data analysis SPSS 22 software was used for data sorting and descriptive analysis of surveyed villages and respondents and 24 AMOS software was used for structural equation modeling, also for spatial analysis and production Mapping based on statistical data, IDW interpolation method was used in ARC GIS software.
Results and discussion:
The growth and expansion of the city of Marivan provides a perfect example of the conversion of agricultural lands and the degradation of sustainable environmental resources, as well as the incorporation of Taze Abad villages, Musk, etc. into the city has increased the challenges of urban management and the adjacent rural areas of the city. According to the findings of AMOS structural equation modeling, in the study area the greatest impact of urban creep on the rural areas of the economic aspect (with a factor of 2.63) such as the impossibility of performing some of the usual economic activities in the villages such as livestock and herding, Increasing luxury and tendency to buy luxury goods among the villagers and ... and increasing dependence on the provision of food and dairy to the city, which is in line with the results of Sheikh Biyglu and Akbarian Roniizi (2018), Jalalian et al (2013). After the economic dimension, the most impact of urban creep on rural areas is the socio-cultural dimension (with a factor of 2.21), such as conflicts (social, cultural, etc.) caused by the incorporation of rural areas, people's participation and ... , Which is in agreement with the results of Saeedi et al. (2016), Alavi et al. (2017), Afrakhte and Hajipour (2013) and Martinuzzi et al (2007). And also after the physical dimension, the greatest impact of urban creep on rural areas is the administrative-administrative dimension (with a factor of 1.15), such as how to manage agricultural lands, confusion of urban backyard management and so on. According to the findings of the study, urban creep has many positive and negative effects on rural areas, but its negative effects are far greater. The most negative effects of urban creep in Marivan are the increasing tendency for agricultural land infrastructure, urban texture ruralization and urbanization of rural texture, socio-cultural conflicts, and so on. This is in line with the study of Harayini in 2016.
In general, if you do not take the policy and measures necessary to prevent this process from continuing, it will have irreversible economic impacts on the region. High population densities have also caused many inequalities (education and ...) at the regional level, and environmental degradation will result in the destruction of valuable agricultural land due to pressure on resources, conversion and land use change. Therefore, it is necessary to improve the enforcement of regular and strict land use laws and to supervise such construction. Unless there are clear management and policy making in the Marivan area and surrounding villages, the urban creep process and land use changes will continue.