Explaining the Regional Competitiveness with future study approach (The case study of Kermanshah Province)


1 PhD student in Economics

2 Assistant Professor, Faculty of Economics, Razi University, Faculty of Economics and Entrepreneurship, Kermanshah, Iran

3 geography


                     The Confluence of destiny and the path of collectively movement is the reason of a new approach that called regional competitiveness in order to achieve social and economic prosperity. This approach is a very effective tool that can be specified the regional Development Strategies by studying in depth the various regional aspects it is reason of identify the root causes affecting the development of an area and estimating their effectiveness. Accordingly, the present study, with the aim of explaining the Regional Competitiveness of Kermanshah Province has tried to examine the possible situations in the field of competitiveness in the region to make the best program to facilitate the competitiveness of the region. For this purpose 64 indices were collected in 27 sub-components and 5 components and the MicMac software is used to study and evaluate the relationship between them and extract key factors in the field of regional competitiveness and ScenarioWizard software is used to analyze and extract scenarios. It should be noted that the evaluation of indicators in this study has been done by expert experts in the field of economically and regionally and in the form of a snowball sample of 50 people and using the Cochran's formula. For this purpose 64 indices were collected in 27 sub-components and 5 components and the MicMac software is used to study and evaluate the relationship between them and extract key factors in the field of regional competitiveness and ScenarioWizard software is used to analyze and extract scenarios. Research results have shown that of the 64 indices, 9 indices have been identified (government support for knowledge - based businesses, specialized research institutes, foreign Direct Investment, geographic focus of complementary activities, Investment security, Private Sector Investment, Free and fair competition levels, quality of workforce, meritocracy) as Key Factors in Competitiveness in Kermanshah Province. And the likely future situations of competitiveness resulting from key factors it represented 7 strong scenarios, 167 weak scenarios, and 31 probable (adaptive) scenarios. The Possible scenarios have 279 probable situations in three desirable situations with a probability factor of %14, %­32 stagnant and %53 critical.
Extended Abstract
Cities can thrive on their economy among other cities with the competition. Understanding and paying attention to current and world-class indicators of competition one of the most important areas of urban creation is competitiveness able to compete with other cities internationally, The most is knowing and paying attention to the competition among the world's most popular and up-to-date indicators. Right now, all over the world competitiveness is a central issue and means of achieving good economic growth and sustainable development. City competitiveness is the potential or capacity of a city to exploit or create competitive advantage that can lead to high and sustainable economic growth of the city compared to other cities. And the issue of regional competitiveness is important because of that generally in terms of economic performance can be seen significant differences between regions of a country. On the other hand many important competitiveness levers are applicable only at the regional level.
       Due to the nature of the present study and a vision that is intended for planning‌ (Perspective 1404), the purpose of this study is practical; it is also among qualitative research, in terms of the nature of the data. The research method is based on future study approach. The present research is a part of documentary-survey research, based on the method of data collection and information. Because the scenario approach is in line with the expert opinion and by using the differential Snowballing method, 15 experts in the field of competitiveness have been identified with the aim of editing competitiveness model scenarios of the kermanshah province their views on indicators have been analyzed and key factors are extracted in MICMAC software and these factors are classified into hypotheses and have been re-evaluated by experts and are classified in the wizard scenario to three floors; desirable, static and critical.
        In this research, the variables used in the MICMAC software were in dimensions 64 * 64 matrix and matrix filling rate was %54 that shows more than % 54of the factors were influenced by each other. Of the 1891 possible relationships in this matrix; 2205 has zero relation that is to say the factors did not or did not influence each other, 474 was the number one, 962 was the number two and 406 was the number three. That's according to the results of the MICMAC software that of the 64 indices, 9 indices have been identified as Key Factors in Competitiveness in Kermanshah Province. The key factors are classified under the hypothesis of desirable, static and critical spectra to elucidate possible situations of competitiveness of Kermanshah province and extracted in the Scenario Wizards by measuring the effect from 3 to -3 by experts; 7 strong scenarios, 167 weak scenarios, and 31 probable scenarios. The Possible scenarios have 279 probable situations in three desirable situations with a probability factor of %14, %­32 stagnant and %53 critical.
        The results of the expert evaluation were most likely for critical situations with the features (regardless of the qualifications of the institutions, increasing the quantity of labor rather than quality, functional monopoly without any competitors, increasing government influence and performance in various dimensions, The prevalence of Border provinces for investment, exit Foreign Institution from Iran and the fear of investing in friendly and partner countries, the closure of knowledge-based businesses due to lack of government support, Performing purely research functions without functional aspects). It is therefore necessary to consider the following three conditions to prevent this scenario from happening and to get into the desirable situation. These should be considered for reduce economic activity; (governmental Bank financial support for businesses, especially knowledge based, near collaboration between industry and academia). These should be considered for investment security; (Private Sector Investment, foreign investment, minimizing the government, considering the potential of the border region more than possible risks­­). These should be considered for meritocracy ;( Creating competitiveness of domestic products with foreign samples and to prevent the monopoly of the market in the hands of some, pay attention to the quality and efficiency of the workforce, pay attention to the criterion rather than the relationship in the jurisdiction of the institutions)


  1. 1.       Ali Akbari, E., Akbari, M., Ansari, M. (2019,) Measurement and Analysis of Spatial Distribution of Competitiveness Indicators in West Asia Region with Emphasis on Iran, Journal of Regional planning, 9(33): 1-14(in persian).
  2. 2.       Ana Paula, F. Muñoz, M.M. Alarcón-Urbistondo, P. (2018), Regional tourism competitiveness using the PROMETHEE approach, Annals of Tourism, 73: 1-13
  3. 3.       Annoni,p .  Ddijkstra,  l.(2019), The eu regional competitiveness index 2019.  European Commission.http://ec.europa.eu/regional_policy/sources/docgener/work
  4. 4.       Dadashpoor, H. Dadejani, M. (2014),Identifying and Prioritizing the Radical Factors Influencing Regional Competitiveness (Case study: Kurdistan Province), Journal of Regional planning,5(19): 27-42(in persian).
  5. 5.       Della Corte, V. Aria, M. (2016), Coopetition and sustainable competitive advantage. The case of tourist Destinations, Tourism Management, 54: 524-540
  6. 6.       Eskandari, M. Pilevar, A.A. Rezaei Nasab, A. (2017),Assessment of Affective Factors on The Regional Competitiveness Towards Sustainable Development (Case study: North Khorasan Province), Geography and Territorial Spatial, 7(24): 57-70(in persian).
  7. 7.       Garshasbi, A., Esmailipour Masouleh, E., Miandoab Chi, E. (2018), Key Components of Industrial Policy with a New Approach to Improving Regional Competitiveness, Business Studies, 14(79): 1-14(in persian).
  8. 8.       Gholipoor, S. Ahmadi, V. Karimi, J. (2019), Political-Economic Analysis of the Urban System in Kermanshah Province (1335 to 1395), Two International Political Economic Studies Quarterly, 2(1): 27-54(in persian).
  9. 9.       Ghorbani, R. kazemizad, Sh. (2019), An Analysis of Effective Factors on Urban Competitiveness Based on Scenario, Case Study: Tabriz City, Geography and Territorial Spatial Arrangement,  9(30): 19-38(in persian).
  10. 10.   Hajimineh, R. Haidar Zadeh, T. (2019), Explaining the Situation of Iran and Turkey in International Competition Law,Political Science, 8(1): 129-160(in persian).
  11. 11.   Horák, p.­ ­Květoň, V.(2018), The effect of public R&D subsidies on firms' competitiveness: Regional and sectoral specifics in emerging innovation systems. Applied Geography, 94 :119–129.
  12. 12.   Ichikawa, H. Yamato, N. Dustan, P. (2017), Competitiveness of global cities from the perspective of the global power city index, Urban Transitions,198: 736-742.
  13. 13.   Kahriz, A.R. Mohammadzadeh, Y. Zonouzi, S.J.M.  Berenjabadi1 Hashemi, N. Ghasemzadeh, N. (2017), The Effect of Competitiveness on Economic Performance in Selected Developing and Developed Countries, Quarterly Journal of the Macro and Strategic Policies ,7(1):86-107(in persian).
  14. 14.   Khazraei Sholayfar, M. karke Abadi, Z. Kamyabi, S. (2019),The evaluation of competitiveness enhancement Strategies of Metropolises of Iran based on Coopetition, Journal of Geographical Science, 30:102-119 (in persian).
  15. 15.   Kirjavainen, j. Saukkonen, N.(2019), Sustainable Competitiveness at the National, Regional, and Firm --Levels. Springer Nature Switzerland AG,4
  16. 16.   Lesniewski, M.A. (2014), The Resource Competitiveness of Enterprises, Economics and Organization of Enterprise,4
  17. 17.   Mohammadi Aydoghmish, F. Rafieian, M. (2017),Assessment of Territorial Competitiveness in the Provinces of Iran Using the Integrated Model of Factor Analysis and Analytic Network Process (F'ANP), Journal of Economy and Regional Development, 24(13):55-85(in persian).


  1. 18.   Molaei, A, Behzadfar ,M. (2019), Definition Urban Identical Competitiveness Dimensions and opportunity with contextual approach in Iranian cities, The Journal of Spatial Planning, 23(2): 97-121(in persian).
  2. 19.   Mousavi, M. Jalalian, I. kahaki, F. (2017), Developing Scenarios of the Factors Affecting the Development of Tourism in West Azerbaijan Province Using the Scenario Wizard, Urban Tourism Quarterly, 4(3):49-62(in persian).
  3. 20.   Mousavi, M. Ghaderi, R. Taghilo, A.A. Kahaki, F. (2018), Scenario Development in Realizability Territorial Spatial Arrangement (Case Study: Khorasan-e-Razavi), Town and Country Planning, 10(1): 65-91(in persian).
  4. 21.   Nezamfar, H., Eshghi Chaharborj,A., Alavi, S. (2017), Spatial analysis of the competitiveness of the provinces of Iran Using the techniques of integration,geographical Planning Space Quarterly, 7(24): 153-168 (in persian).
  5. 22.    Nezamfar, H., Eshghi Chaharborj,A., Alavi, S. (2017), Investigation of the Economic Competitiveness Status of Cities of Iran, Journal of Urban Economics and Management, 5(20):23-38(in persian).
  6. 23.   Rasoli, M., Hashemi Nasab, Z.(2019), Evaluation of Orumiyeh Integrated Management with a Predictive Approach, Second National Conference on Civil and Architecture in 21st Century Urban Management(in persian).
  7. 24.   Rasoli, M., Hashemi Nasab, Z., Rahmanpour, I. (2019), Competitiveness in a Regional System with an Emphasis on Tourism, Sokhan Gostar(in persian).
  8. 25.   Roth, S., & Kaivo-oja, J (2015). Is the future a political economy? Functional analysis of three leading foresight and futures studies journals , Futures .
  9. 26.   Sáez, L. Periáñez, I. (2015), Benchmarking urban competitiveness in Europe to attract investment ,Cities, 48: 76-85.
  10. 27.   Shafiee Roodposhti, M., Bahrami, F., Karimizadeh Shvani, F. (2019), Presenting the Pattern of Competition in Free Trade Zones, Journal of Business Administration Researches, 11(21): 181-207(in persian).
  11. 28.   Šegota .A, Tomljanović. M , Huđek. I V. (2017 ), Contemporary approaches to measuring competitiveness, Journal of Economics, 35(1): 123-150
  12. 29.   Shahkarami, K. Rahnama, M. Chharrahi, M.  Heydarinesar, M. (2019),  An Analysis of the National Position of the Mashhad City on the Socio-Economic Development Based on the City- Competitive Brand on the Horizon of 2024,Urban Structure And Function Studies, 6(18): 87-108(in persian).
  13. 30.   Singhal, Sh. McGreal, S. Berry, J. (2013), An evaluative model for city competitiveness: Application to UK cities, Land Use Policy, 30: 214-222. 
  14. 31.   Tabatabaee, S. Zarabadi, S. Ziari, Y. A. Majedi, H. (2019), Explaining the Pattern of Regional Development through Activity Clusters in Tehran Province with an Emphasis on Competitiveness, The University of Tehrans Scientific, 11(2): 235-262(in persian).
  15. 32.   UK Department for Regional Development (DRD).(2013), Northern Ireland Regional Development Strategy 2035. for Northern Ireland. Department for Regional Development. Strategic Planning and Co-ordination
  16. 33.      Yasoori,  M. Sejodi, M. (2018), Regional Development Strategy (RDS), a Modern Approach to a Balanced Regional Development, 8(29):93-106  (in persian).