تحلیل وضعیت گردشگری ایران در سطوح ملی و منطقه‌ای با استفاده از شاخص نوآوری

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 هیات علمی گروه اقتصاد گردشگری جهاد دانشگاهی خراسان رضوی

2 هیات علمی گروه اقتصاد کشاورزی دانشگاه سیستان و بلوچستان

3 هیات علمی جهاد دانشگاهی

4 پزوهشگر گروه اقتصاد جهاد دانشگاهی مشهد

10.30495/jzpm.2021.4026

چکیده

بر اساس تجارب موفق توسعه گردشگری، انجام فعالیت­های دانش­بنیان و بکارگیری فناوری­های نوین حاصل از نوآوری­ها در زیربخش­های گردشگری، تاثیر فزاینده­ای در جذب گردشگران بین­المللی داشته­است. عوامل متعددی در اجرای فرایند نوآوری تاثیرگذار می­باشند که  سبب مدیریت بهتر فرآیند نوآوری و برنامه­ریزی می­گردد. از اینرو در پژوهش حاضر به طراحی و اندازه­گیری شاخص نوآوری بخش گردشگری در سطوح ملی و منطقه­ای پرداخته شده و وضعیت این شاخص در کشور با استان خراسان رضوی به عنوان یک استان دارای کارکرد گردشگری مقایسه شده­است. در این مطالعه از شاخص نوآوری جهانی ([1]GII) جهت طراحی و اندازه­گیری شاخص نوآوری گردشگری استفاده شد. همچنین با محاسبه ضرایب همبستگی میان ابعاد درونی و بیرونی شاخص نوآوری، به بررسی ارتباطات بین آن­ها پرداخته شد. جمع­آوری اطلاعات از طریق تکمیل پرسشنامه از خبرگان و از روش پیمایش میدانی انجام شده ­است. جامعه آماری این مطالعه اساتید و محققان حوزه گردشگری، کارشناسان شرکت­های دانش­بنیان فعال در حوزه گردشگری و کارشناسان گردشگری بخش­های دولتی و خصوصی می­باشند و حجم نمونه آماری 70 نفر می­باشد. نتایج نشان داد ورودی­های شاخص نوآوری مانند مهارت و آموزش عالی، انواع زیرساخت­ها، تجارت و بازار، منابع انسانی، ارتباطات نوآوری و جذب دانش، وضعیت مناسبی جهت ایجاد نوآوری و فناوری در بخش گردشگری در سطوح ملی و استانی دارند و ضعف اساسی در این مقوله مربوط به روابط محدود بین­المللی، کیفیت و کارایی قوانین، وضعیت فساد اداری و رانت، فرایندهای سازمانی و اداری و نیز ضعف در ایجاد انسجام فرایند نوآوری در قالب خوشه­هایی مانند مراکز تولید کالاهای خلاقانه و نوآورانه می­باشد. همچنین محاسبه ضریب همبستگی بین ابعاد درونی و بیرونی شاخص نوآوری نشان داد، آموزش عالی، فناوری اطلاعات و ارتباطات، محیط کسب و کار، سرمایه­گذاری و اعتبارات، تحقیق و توسعه، نیروی انسانی و ارتباطات مربوط به نوآوری دارای تاثیرگذاری بیشتری بر ابعاد مختلف شاخص خروجی نوآوری می­باشند. در مجموع کشور در مقایسه با استان از وضعیت و رتبه بهتری به لحاظ نوآوری در بخش گردشگری برخوردار است.



[1] Global Innovation Index (Avarage)

کلیدواژه‌ها


عنوان مقاله [English]

Analyzing the innovation indicators’ in the tourism sector at the national and regional levels (Comparison of the country with Khorasan Razavi province)

نویسندگان [English]

  • Hamideh Khaksar Astaneh 1
  • Mahmood Hashemi tabar 2
  • Javad Sakhdari 3
  • Ali Rahnama 4
1 Faculty of ACECR
2 Faculty of agricultural economics of Sistan and Balouchestan
3 Faculty of ACECR
4 Researcher of ACECR
چکیده [English]

Based on the successful experience of tourism development, the activities of scholars and the use of new technologies resulting from innovations in the field of tourism had an increasing impact on attracting international tourists. There are several factors that influence the implementation of the innovation process, which leads to better management of the innovation and planning process. Therefore, in the present study, the innovation index of tourism sector at national and regional levels has been designed and measured. Also, the situation of this index in the country has been compared with Khorasan Razavi province as a province with tourism function. In this study, the Global Innovation Index (GII) was used to design and measure the tourism innovation index. They also examined the relationships between them by calculating the correlation coefficients between the internal and external dimensions of the innovation index. Data collection was done by completing a questionnaire from experts and field survey method. The statistical population of this study includes professors and researchers in the field of tourism, experts of knowledge-based companies active in the field of tourism and tourism experts in the public and private sectors, and the statistical sample size is 70 people. The results showed that the inputs of the innovation index such as skills and higher education, infrastructure, trade and market, human resources, innovation communication and knowledge absorption, have a good position to create innovation and technology in the tourism sector at national and provincial levels. This category is related to limited international relations, quality and efficiency of laws, the situation of corruption and rent-seeking, organizational and administrative processes, as well as the weakness in creating cohesion of the innovation process in the form of clusters such as creative and innovative goods production centers. Also, the calculation of the correlation coefficient between the internal and external dimensions of the innovation index showed that higher education, information and communication technology, business environment, investment and credit, research and development, manpower and communication related to innovation have a greater impact on different dimensions of the index. They are the output of innovation. In general, the country has a better status and ranking in terms of innovation in the tourism sector compared to the province.
Extended Abstract
Introduction:
The Global Innovation Index (GII) is published by the World Intellectual Property Organization, the Inside Business School and Cornell University. GII report introduces innovation as a key driver of economic growth and analyzes policymakers and business leaders by considering its various dimensions. It is possible to measure and evaluate the level of innovation of countries based on indicators and criteria. In addition to being important at the national level, innovation must also be evaluated and analyzed at the regional level. The regional approach to innovation, especially for developing countries, has been studied from different perspectives in previous studies and depends on various dimensions of the region, including social, economic and political dimensions. Due to the potential of tourism in Khorasan Razavi and Mashhad, the establishment of an innovation system in the tourism sector of the province is important. Therefore, in the present study, the innovation index of tourism sector at national and regional levels has been designed and measured.
Methodology:
The Global Innovation Index (GII) was used to design and measure the tourism innovation index. Also, by calculating the correlation coefficients between the internal and external dimensions of the innovation index, the relationships between them were examined. Data collection was done by completing a questionnaire from experts and field survey method. The statistical population of this study is professors and researchers in the field of tourism, experts of knowledge-based companies active in the field of tourism and tourism experts in the public and private sectors, and the statistical sample size is 70 people.
Results and discussions:
The results showed that most of the criteria for innovation in the province and the country are in good condition. But the indicators of international relations, quality and efficiency of laws, foreign investment, corruption and rent, organizational processes, creative production centers, stock value of knowledge-based companies, access to foreign markets and the status of foreign research and development companies based in the park Science and technology are weak both in the province and in the country, and require proper planning at the policy level. Summarizing the opinions of the studied experts on how internal communication between the input and output dimensions of the innovation index shows, in the category of knowledge creation, different internal dimensions of the innovation index including research and development, investment and credit, higher education, manpower, communication. They are influential in terms of innovation, knowledge acquisition, legal and economic environment. In terms of the effect of knowledge, the business environment, investment and credit, information and communication technology, communication related to innovation, higher education, research and development, human resources and trade and competition are also effective. In order to disseminate knowledge, internal factors such as investment and credit, communications related to innovation, business environment, trade and competition, higher education, information and communication technology, research and development, political and security environment have a significant impact. On the other hand, they have an impact on the external dimension of intangible creativity, information and communication technology, business environment, higher education, investment and credit, as well as communication related to innovation. In terms of creative goods and services, business environment, information and communication technology, higher education, investment and credit, and manpower are also influential. In terms of Internet creativity, information and communication technology, business environment and higher education are effective.
Conclusion:
Both the country and the province are in a good position to create innovation and technology in the tourism sector in terms of having skills and higher education, various infrastructures, trade and market, human resources, innovation communication and knowledge absorption. The main weaknesses in this category are related to limited international relations, quality and efficiency of laws, the situation of corruption and rent, organizational and administrative processes, as well as the weakness in creating cohesion of the innovation process in the form of clusters such as creative and innovative product centers. On the other hand, some internal dimensions of innovation index such as higher education, information and communication technology, business environment, investment and credit, research and development, human resources and communication related to innovation have a greater impact on the output of innovation index and thus create and Publishing knowledge and creativity in the tourism sector. Also, the country has a better situation and ranking in terms of innovation in the tourism sector than the province.
According to the results, one of the weaknesses of innovation in the tourism sector is related to market access. Knowledge-based companies have many foreign competitors to enter the domestic and international markets. Many student products cannot be sold even in the country due to the presence of well-known foreign competitors. The lack of a clear path for the export of students' products and the lack of appropriate legal facilities in this regard have also caused less attention of these companies to the export of products. Every development must first be stimulated by the growth of the domestic market and then, with government support, the opportunity for global competition and access to the international market. Currently, the domestic market is limited and small compared to the total potential of creating knowledge-based products. many knowledge-based companies, although highly technical and scientific, have little knowledge of business and marketing knowledge. Understanding the needs of the knowledge-based market, the correct supply of the product, and the correct acquisition of capital are the prerequisites of any knowledge-based company that must be followed scientifically and in principle. Therefore, the establishment of knowledge-based commercial companies with the aim of offering knowledge-based products to domestic and foreign markets is recommended. Creating tourism organizations in order to inform the stakeholders of the benefits of technology and innovation can also be useful in attracting domestic markets. Another important issue in the field of innovation is investment and financing for knowledge-based companies. Knowledge-based companies active in the field of tourism generally do not have sufficient financial resources. The high share of financing of these companies is through obtaining loans, the long process and high interest rates on loans and obtaining heavy guarantee documents have made it difficult for these companies to finance the money market. Therefore, it is suggested that these companies become familiar with the different methods of financing and provide the required financial resources from different financial markets. It is also possible to create specialized financial companies to carry out the financial activities of knowledge-based companies in the field of tourism. Since the main assets of these companies are intellectual assets and do not benefit from other common assets such as property, machinery, equipment, banks can finance them by acquiring shares in projects and contracts.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Global Innovation Index
  • Tourism
  • compromise programming
  • Iran
  • Khorasan Razavi Province
  1. Besharati kelayeh, Fahimeh., Moradi, Mohammad Ali and Akbari, Morteza (2018). “The Impact of Human Capital on Innovation: A Comparative Study of Developing and Developed Countries”, Quarterly Journal of Strategic and Macro Policy. 6(22), 23-46. (In Persian).
  2. Chernovich, E. Fridlyanova, K and Ditkovsky, S. (2015): Science and Technology Indicators in the Russian. National Research University Higher School of Economics. Moscow:HSE.
  3. Feratta, M., Mavilia, R. and Sucicitti, M., (2012): Innovation Policies in Mediterranean Regions. InGlobaMED Research Paper Series.
  4. Fucec, A., and Corina, M.(2014): Knowledge Economies in the European Union: Romania s Position. Procedia Economics and Finance, 15, pp: 481-489.
  5. Ghazi noori. Seyed Sepehr and Farazkish, Mahdieh (2018). “National Evaluation Model of Science, Technology and Innovation Based on Performance, Effectiveness and Benefit Indicators”, Public Policy Strategic Studies Quarterly. 8(27), 205-229. (In Persian).
  6. Khamseh, Abbas., Nasermelli, Mohammad hasan and Ramezani, Ali (2016). “Prioritizing the dimensions and indicators affecting innovation management in the power plant equipment and energy supply industry (Case study: Mapnapars Company)”, Technology Development Quarterly. 12(48), 50-57. (In Persian).
  7. Kianpour, Saeed and Salehi, Ali Reza (2015). “Measuring the index of technological achievement and innovation in Iran compared to other countries in the world. Quarterly”, Journal of Growth and Technology. 11(44), 70-75. (In Persian).
  8. Li, X., )2009(: China’s Regional Innovation Capacity in Transition: An Empirical Approach. Research Policy,38, pp: 338-357.
  9. Malerba, F. (2002): Sectoral systems of innovation and production. Research policy, 31(2), pp: 247-264.
  10. Malerba, F. (2005): Sectoral systems of innovation: a framework for linking innovation to the knowledge base, structure and dynamics of sectors. Economics of innovation and New Technology, 14, pp: 63-82.
  11. Paz-Marin, M, Antonio Gutierrez, P and Hervas-Martinez, C (2015): Classification of countries progress toward a knowledge economy based on machine learning classification techniques. Expert Systems with Applications,  42(1), pp:562-572.
  12. Pike, A., Rodríguez-Pose, A. and Toman, J., (2010): What Kind of Local and Regional Development and for Whom?.Regional Studies, 41(9), pp: 1253-1269.
  13. Rezaeyan, Sedigheh., Fallah, Hasan., Ghazinoori, Seyyed Sepehr and Aliahmadi, Alireza (2014). “ Modeling the relationship between knowledge management functions and performance indicators of the National Innovation System”, Strategy Quarterly. 71, 167-191. (In Persian).
  14. Salami, Reza., Mirzaei, Hosein and Safardoust, Atieh (2017).”Moving towards a knowledge-based economy by examining the internal relationship between the input and output dimensions of the index”,  Technology Development Quarterly. 13(51), 16-25. (In Persian).
  15. Sandybayev, A. (2016):  Strategic Innovation in Tourism. A Conceptual and Review Approach, International Journal of Research in Tourism and Hospitality (IJRTH), 2(4), pp: 5-10.
  16. Shahmirzadi, Tayebeh., Hariri, Tajalla., Fahimnia, Fatemeh., Babolhavaeji, Fahimeh and Motallebi, Darioush (2019). “ Analysis of indicators for measuring and evaluating science, technology and innovation in the Agricultural Research, Education and Promotion Organization”, two scientific journals of Shahed University. 5(1), 47-66. (In Persian).
  17. Tatyana I. Klimenko, Alexey I. Shinkevich, Svetlana S. Kudryavtseva, Marina V. Shinkevich, Naira V. Barsegyan , Angelika A. Farrakhova, Izida I. Ishmuradova, (2018): Modeling Factors of Environmental Tourism Development in Innovation Economy,  Ekoloji 27(106), pp: 263-269.
  18. The Global Innovation Index (The Human Factor in Innovation). 2019.
  19. Tödtling, F. and Trippl, M., (2005): One size fits all?: Towards a Differentiated Regional Innovation Policy Approach.
  20. UNESCO (2015). Science,technology and innovation - UIS.Stat – Unesco.
  21. Wieczorek, A. J., Negro, S. O., Harmsen, R., Heimeriks, G. J., Luo, L., and Hekkert,M. P. (2013): A review of the European offshore wind innovation system. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 26, pp: 294-306.