عنوان مقاله [English]
The huge part of Iran is arid and semi-arid, and there are many deserts in the country, but there is no tourism infrastructure in these areas. One of the most important desert areas in Iran is the Maranjab desert, which has become a tourist destination in the south, Bandrigg and the southern ridge and the desert national park in the west.The purpose of this study is to analyze the indices affecting the development of desert tourism with a focus on health tourism in Maranjab Desert. The present study is conducted on the basis of descriptive-analytical method in two qualitative and quantitative sections based on thematic analysis and confirmatory factor analysis of the first and second order. By using Delphi method 35 experts in tourism were selected. All of them completed the 6 main dimensions of health tourism development in desert destination including ecology, Physical development, destination mental image, research and development, policy making, and social responsibility. In order to evaluate the validity and reliability of the health tourism development pattern, the matching method has been used. The findings indicate that ecological variables, physical development, destination image, research and development, policy making and social responsibility are the effective components health tourism development in a desert destination. Therefore, it can be said that each of these variables can affect the development of desert tourism. In order to show the effect of each of the indicators, factor analysis of the first and second order has been used, the results indicate that all of the model indices are confirmed. Then, the Pearson correlation coefficient was used to determine the type and degree of the relationship of a quantitative variable with another quantitative variable. The results indicated that the ecological variables with the research and development variables (r = 0/506 and P <0.001), physical development variables with target mental image variable (r = 0.88, P <0.001), the variable of the target mental image with the variable of policy-making (r = 0.779 and P <0.001), the research and development variable with the policy-making variable (r = 0.888 and p <0.001) and the variable of policy-making Social responsibility (r = 0.807 and P <0.001) has the highest correlation and the relationship between all variables is significant.
The wide range of Iran is covered by desert and dry areas while there isn’t any tourism infrastructure in these areas. Deserts with natural unique features such as hot water, salt lake, sludge, sunlight, sand and so on have many potentials in developing health tourism. The growing demand and also accepting visitors in critical areas in desert during these years and lack of planning in these areas have attracted more attention to desert areas. One of the most important usages of desert areas is health tourism which is ignored in recent years. Activities like sun therapy, sand therapy, and salt therapy are potentials of desert areas in tourism therapy. Marnajab desert as a tourism goal is located in the south, Band rig and high sand dune in the south east and national park in the west of Iran in the north of Aran and Bidgol cities in Kashan. Maranjab desert as one of the most accessible desert areas of Iran is an important area in developing tourism and especially health tourism due to mild temperature, diverse tourism attractions including Maranjab caravansary and handmade well ,sand dune, salt polygons, Sargardan island, morphologic forms, observing stars ,rare plant and animal species , riding camel , dune bashing , sand boarding , water therapy , sand therapy , peace and quiet place in addition to cultural and historical attractions . The aim of this study is to introduce health tourism as an effective factor on developing Maranjab desert.
In the present study, sequential exploratory mixed method is used based on planning and testing its developmental model. So by using interview and scientific texts and sampling method , 35 critical experts are selected ,then initial framework of quality model in developing health tourism based on naturopathy in desert is extracted and validated by triangulation method . 170 persons are randomly selected for quantity evaluation. Therefore, a questionnaire is written with 103 variables in 6 dimensions like ecology, physical development, mental image of destination, research and development, making policies and responsibility. Then in order to study final framework evaluation, confirmatory factor analysis of first and second order and one sample t test are used to determine the importance of model.
Using Delphi method after 3 repetitions, 8 out of 230 questions are deleted and 16 sub- factors and 6 dimensions including ecology, physical development, mental image of destination, making policies, research and development and social responsibility are confirmed. In quantity section , after testing normalized variables , in order to study data number to conduct factor analysis , the KMO and Bartlett tests are used .The values of KMO test were variables higher than 0.70 and Bartlett test value was at significant level lower than 0.5 .Then t statistics value was tested that was higher than 1.96 so the hypotheses were confirmed .In order to show effect of each indicator on related variables and also fit index to show whether data adjusts to model, the factor analysis of first and second order is used . Here factor loads higher than 0.3 are accepted. After fitness, Pearson correlation was used to determine kind and degree of relation of a variable with another quantitative variable. The results show that ecology variable has relationship with research and development variable (r=0.506,p<0.001), physical development with mental image of destination (r=0.836,p<0.001), mental image of destination with making policies variable (r=0.797,p<0.001), research and development variable with making policies (r=0.882,p<0.001) and making policies variable with social responsibility (r=0.807,p<0.001) and all variable have significant relationship with each other.
In this study, implications analysis shows that qualitative model of initial framework of developing health tourism in Maranjab desert includes 6 dimensions .Ecology dimension having cultural and social attractions and natural attractions is very important in Maranjab desert , because natural attractions in desert is more susceptible than other areas . And desert’s people are more introvert than others. So good and correct relationship with desert’s people is important. Physical development dimension in desert includes public and private infrastructure s of tourism .Mental image dimension in desert shows marketing, planning, wide involvement, human resources and service quality. Generally mental image can be defined all beliefs and attitudes of people in this area .In fact the core of destination brand is making positive image in people mind. Making policies includes formulating internal and external strategies. Suitable making policies by local people is one of the most important factors in developing health tourism in Maranjab desert. So this area has two indices such as legal and ethical responsibility. In addition to sensitivities related to observing rules and regulations of protecting natural resources and local community norms, preventing disease in health tourism can increase the importance of social responsibility. Research and development dimension includes studying and education indices, behavioral studies and advanced technology. Based on developing information technology and social networking sites and also changing life style of people, the education and studying in areas like developing health tourism in Maranjab desert seem necessary.