An Analysis of Land Use Changes and Thermal Island Formation in Urmia City exclusion Using Remote Sensing

Authors

1 geography

2 university of tabriz

3 University of tabriz

4 Urban Planning, Faculty of Literature and Humanities, Azad University, Central Tehran Branch

Abstract

Population growth and urbanization are factors influencing the increase in air temperature in urban areas, which creates an thermal island in these areas relative to the surrounding area. These changes lead to the formation of a city's thermal island. A phenomenon in which urban areas experience warmer temperatures than their surroundings. Remote sensing with the use of infrared thermal radiation and the use of physical models is a suitable tool for calculating the surface temperature in vast areas. In this research, that of terms methodological, descriptive-analytic and in terms of purpose, the ETM+ Sensor of Landsat 7 satellite imagery and OLI and TIRS Sensor of Landsat 8 Satellite used to determine the Formation range of Thermal Island in Urmia city and The relationship between land use changes and the formation of thermal islands, during the period of 2010 to 2018. As well as the support vector machine classification method was used to extract land use in three classes of residential, Vegetation and gardening and agricultural.Surveys show that the temperature in residential areas in 2010 was 32.90 degrees Celsius in the warm season, which reached 35.17 degree in 2018. That is an increase of 2.27 ° C. However, the area of residential areas is also showing an increasing trend and increased by6.09%. In 2010, garden lands and vegetation cover is 43.53 percent of the total land area and agricultural lands is 39.36 percent of the total land area, which will be 40.49% and 36.30% respectively in 2018. These values in2018 are 40.49% and 36.30% of the area, that means a decreasing trend. Therefore, It can be concluded that agricultural and agricultural lands have been declining as a result of increasing residential areas. There is also a significant relationship between the surface coverage and the surface temperature of the study area, which indicates the formation of heat island on coatings made in the city exclusion.
Introduction
The world is rapidly urbanizing, which means that by 2015 more than two-thirds of the world's population will live in cities. As a result of urban population growth and the need for more space for housing and activity, the phenomenon of urban expansion occurs where more land goes under construction and the city expands horizontally and vertically. This expansion, especially when it is horizontal, occurs with changes in land use. This change often includes farmland, gardens and Bayer lands.
 
Population growth and urbanization are factors influencing the increase in air temperature in urban areas, which creates an thermal island in these areas relative to the surrounding area. These changes lead to the formation of a city's thermal island. A phenomenon in which urban areas experience warmer temperatures than their surroundings. Remote sensing with the use of infrared thermal radiation and the use of physical models is a suitable tool for calculating the surface temperature in vast areas
 
Urban heat islands are one of the most common urban phenomena, whereby some urban areas, and especially urban centers, are warmer than a few degrees around them. Studying this phenomenon and examining its mechanism is very important for urban planning. This study aims to study land use changes in Urmia during 2010 to 2018 and to investigate the relationship between these changes with the formation of thermal islands in the city.
 
 Methodology
In this descriptive-analytical and purpose-oriented research, Landsat 7 and 8 images were used. After downloading the images, pre-processing of the satellite images was performed using ENVI 5.3 software, including: ؛ Stacking and cutting of Urmia City exclusion and converting the numerical value of each pixel from the image to brightness (radiance and reflection) degrees. Then, in image processing step, it was prepared to produce land use map and ground surface temperature; Supervised vector machine classification method was used to produce land use map and ENVI (Band Math) formulation was used to calculate land surface temperature. Finally, in the postprocessing stage the outputs were analyzed in ARC GIS software and a map of land surface temperature and land use was prepared.
 
 
 Results and discussion
 
In 2010, in the cold season, the highest temperature is 18.01 in the Bayer lands and the lowest temperature is -13.24 in the residential area. In the warm season, the highest temperature in residential and Bayer lands was 50.13 and the lowest temperature was extracted in garden lands with 15.32.
In 2015, in the cold season, the highest temperature was 13.41 in Bayer lands and Gardens and the lowest temperature was -7.17 in Residential and Constructed lands. In the warm season, the highest temperature was found in residential and Bayer lands with a value of 47.08 and the lowest temperature in the garden lands with a value of 31.51. Compared to 2010, we are experiencing a decrease in the minimum and maximum temperatures in the hot and cold season.
In 2018, the minimum and maximum temperatures in the cold season are -0.79 and 19.59, respectively, and in the warm season are -21.94 and 18.46, respectively.
So that compared to 2015 we are experiencing an increase in temperature in the cold season and a decrease in the temperature in the warm season.
In residential areas during the warm season of the year from 2010 to 2018 the average temperature has increased from 32/90 in 2010 to 35/17 in 2018.
This could gradually reflect the warming of the air and the formation of heat islands over residential areas in the warm seasons, which due to the asphalt surface and the presence of vehicles and heating, the city has a higher temperature than the surrounding areas.
 
The support vector machine method was used for land use extraction, with the highest overall accuracy and kappa coefficient of 99.65% and 0.98% for the 2018 warm season, respectively.
In the warm season of 2010, residential lands with an average temperature of 32.90 ° C accounted for 17.11% of the study area.
 
In 2015, residential lands with an average temperature of 33.07 ° C accounted for 21.06% of the study area. This amount for 2018 is 35/17 and 23/20 respectively. Thus, in the time series studied, the temperature in residential areas increased by 2.27 ° C from 2010 to 2018, and the area of ​​these areas also showed an increase of 6.09% from 2010 to 2018.
 
Conclusion
Surveys show that in 2010 the area of ​​Bayer lands and gardens has a greater area than 2018, so that in 2010 the areas of vegetation and vegetation cover 43.53% and the Bayer lands and arable land area is 39.36%. These figures for 2018 are 40.49% and 36.30% respectively, indicating a decreasing trend.
As a result of the increase in residential areas and urban sprawl, Arable lands and gardens have been declining, increasing population and increasing the use of vehicles and thermal equipment throughout the city, causing the phenomenon of heat islands in metropolises of the country, including Urmia. There is also a significant relationship between land cover and surface temperature in all the periods studied, indicating a direct impact of land cover on the formation of thermal islands in cities.

Keywords


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