عنوان مقاله [English]
Tourism diplomacy as one of the types of public diplomacy is one of the important tools to advance the economic, political, cultural and even security goals of countries in the peripheral and trans-peripheral environment. The Makran region of Iran has the potential to become an irreplaceable destination for tourism in Iran and its eastern neighbors due to its location and access to adjacent areas, as well as attractions such as maritime, economic, and commercial and desert tourism, but this objective faces several challenges. There are two levels of micro and macro exposure. The main question is what are the challenges of tourism diplomacy in Iran's relations with its eastern neighbors? This paper uses descriptive-survey method and Spss software for data analysisAnd by using one-way ANOVA testsOne-way and paired t-test were used to evaluate each index. The statistical population of the article was 344 people who were active in the field of diplomacy and tourism and the sample size was determined using Cochran formula. The results of the paper show that about 60% of the research population has a high tendency to exploit tourism diplomacy in the relations of Iran and its eastern neighbors with the Makran region. Beta coefficient of impact of tourism diplomacy quality on dimension of tourism infrastructure is 0.47. Based on the quality of tourism diplomacy, there is a significant relationship in management index and planning of tourism infrastructure in Makran region.The positive relation is also estimated to indicate a direct relationship.Also 42.6% of the respondents consider the effects of tourism diplomacy on the index of cross-border political and security tensions to be moderate and for 22.1% it is high. And for 18.6 percent it is very low. Analysis of statistical relationships based on chi-square test based on consensus tables showed that there is a statistically significant relationship between dependent variable of political and security tensions index between neighbor’s border and independent variable of quality of tourism diplomacy. Studies show that based on the quality of tourism diplomacy, there is a significant relationship in the index of regionalism among neighbors. This relation is also positively estimated indicating a direct relationship. According to the results of regression test, the quality of tourism diplomacy significantly predicts the promotion of regionalism among neighbors with beta coefficient of 0.29.
Iran, despite having a 4-year history of cultural, political, commercial, and economic relations with other countries, But it seems that it has still not been effective in cultural and historical interaction with other countries. And provide comprehensive policy in these areas. In recent years, especially after the Trump administration's sanctions and before Iran's oil exports faced widespread sanctions and deprived the economy of its oil revenues, we have witnessed various attempts to free the country's budget from oil. These efforts will undoubtedly work if they are accompanied by intelligent government planning and policy. One way to offset the deficit of the country is to develop tourism in different parts of the country. One of the areas that has great potential for tourism development is Makran region in south east of Iran; but the region has so far failed to deliver due to security, political and ideological challenges. And its potential reaches prosperity. There are many reasons for this stagnation But most of all, the security challenges, the inadequacy of the region's tourism infrastructure, and the dominance of the security and political space on Iran-its relations are among the most important reasons. Undoubtedly, one of the strategies that can transform this space is tourism diplomacy, which both the government and tourism activists must engage with in this project.
This research is an applied research and descriptive-analytical in terms of research method. Data collection tools include articles, books, websites that will be used in document studies and questionnaires, photos and maps that will be used in field studies. The information required for this research was obtained through both documentary and field studies. After data collection through data collection tools, the raw data were analyzed by statistical methods (descriptive and inferential).SPSS software was used for data processing. The target population in this study is the elites and the activists in the field of tourism and diplomacy. Cochran’s formula was used to determine the sample size of the population. The sample size (questionnaire) was 344 persons. The statistical population of this study was divided into three groups according to age - 25-30 years, 30-35 years and 35 years. The second group is the most abundant in terms of frequency. Statistical analysis of the study in terms of education index shows that the respondents are divided into three categories: Bachelor, Master and PhD. In terms of occupation, the respondents were divided into four groups the highest number of civil servants among the respondents and the next rank are divided by tourism activists, diplomats and university professors.
Results and discussion:
About 60% of the respondents have a high tendency to exploit tourism diplomacy in Iranian-Eastern relations with the Makran region. This shows that Diplomacy planners and planners of regional countries need to consider Makran region tourism in the preparation of diplomatic plans that will facilitate and improve the relations between the countries of the region and the neighbors of the Makran region and regional integration. In addition to answering the research question, the effects of tourism diplomacy on the index of improvement of relations between countries around Makran region have been investigated using linear regression test. Accordingly, the results of regression test show that tourism diplomacy significantly predicts the index of relations between countries around the Makran region with beta coefficient of 0.47. The tourism diplomacy in Makran region is faced with the most important challenges:
1- Management and planning of Makran region tourism infrastructure
In order to answer the research question, linear regression test was used to investigate the effects of tourism diplomacy quality on management index and planning of tourism infrastructure in Makran region. Accordingly, the results of regression test show that the beta coefficient of impact of tourism diplomacy quality on dimension of tourism infrastructure is 0.47.
2- Neighboring cross-border political and security tensions
The analytical findings of the paper show that 42.6% of the respondents evaluated the impact of the quality of tourism diplomacy on the indicator of decreasing the cross-border political and security tensions on the average level and 22.2% for the high level and 18.6% for the average. It is also very low.
3. Lack of regionalism project among neighbors
Analysis of Statistical Relationship between Quality of Tourism Diplomacy and Regionalism Index among Makran Area Neighbors Through cluster analysis in three classes of weak, middle and high, based on chi-square homogeneity test based on consensus tables, It indicates a statistically significant relationship between the dependent variable of regionalism among the neighbors and the independent variable of the quality of tourism diplomacy. Studies show that based on the quality of tourism diplomacy, there will be a significant change in the regionalism index among neighbors. This relationship is also positively estimated to indicate a direct relationship, In fact, with the increase in the quality of tourism diplomacy, the index of regionalism among neighbors is also improving.
The goals of tourism diplomacy are divided into two levels: internal and external: Inside tourism diplomacy pursues several interrelated goals. The government seeks to support the people and various domestic institutions, including think tanks, universities, and other stakeholders, in the pursuit of foreign tourism diplomacy. This is especially important when negotiations are underway. At this time, the State Department is trying to prevent the country or countries from opposing domestic public opinion in their favor. That is both defensive and offensive. All foreign and formal agencies involved in foreign affairs should be seen as part of the tourism diplomacy system. In addition, it is very useful to seek the support of foreign diplomats of Line-2 and Line-3 of foreign countries, especially of neighboring countries. This effort usually increases the options available to the State Department.