عنوان مقاله [English]
GI refers to the difference and discrimination between men and women in the economic, political, social, and health etc. objectives of which the individual or group assumes their power and dignity. Studies show that without regard for women's conditions, development cannot be achieved for any country, since women always account for half the population of each country; Therefore, the present study uses a descriptive-analytical approach to pursue two main goals: a) ranking the Middle Eastern countries (16 countries) based on the GII; b) leveling the Middle Eastern countries based on the GII. The research population includes 16 Middle Eastern countries. The data required for research are collected through the Human Development Report and Gender Inequality United Nations in 2018. Research variables included 6 variables: Maternal mortality ratio (for every 100,000 live births), adolescent birth rate (births per 1,000 women), Female seats in parliament (%), Labour force participation rate (%), Population with at least some secondary education (%) and Life expectancy at birth (Female). AHP method is used to assess the variables of the research, and copra's technique is used for ranking and evaluating the desirability status of the Gender Inequality Index in the Middle East, The results of the research indicate that from 16 Middle Eastern countries, Kuwait, Libya, Qatar and Saudi Arabia ranked first to fourth in a perfectly favorable position in terms of gender inequality index, Indeed, there is little discrimination between men and women in comparison to other Middle Eastern countries; Yemen and Sudan are in the most unfavorable position in the last rankings, this shows the huge difference and discrimination between men and women in all cases in both countries. Also the country of Iran with the score of the copra's 55/542% is ranked ninth and the average utility status is in terms of the GII.
Gender inequalities are an important factor in creating conditions that discriminate against women due to social requirements and restrictions, social and ethical laws, and customs. The position of women in society is deeply influenced by the conditions and levels of development in countries. Hence, as countries become more developed, the gap between the development of men and women narrow. Therefore, improving the status of women is one of the key requirements for improving development indicators in any society. In other words, no country can achieve development without regard to women's conditions (Khani, 2010: 8), because women, as half of the world's population, are at the heart of every nation's socio-economic development (Jaliliyan & Heshmatollah, 2016: 130).
The Middle East is largely due to the geopolitical importance and vast oil reserves of the world, which, despite its abundant natural resources, have suffered from common challenges that have created serious obstacles to their sustainable development (Mohamadi & Sobhani, 2018: 100). One of the most important obstacles in the development process of these countries is the gender inequality and the lack of serious participation of women in the development process of these countries which impedes the exploitation of the capacities of half of their population. So according to the points presented in the present study, it is attempted to determine the descriptive-analytical approach of the situation of Middle East countries (16 countries) based on Gender Inequality Index using Copra's technique; the status of this gender inequality has been examined in economic, political, health, and educational dimensions. Therefore, with respect to the stated goals, the present study seeks to answer the following question:
How is the status and ranking of Middle Eastern countries based on gender inequality index?
The present study according type is descriptive-analytical and according purpose is practical-theoretical purpose. Which a descriptive method based on the analysis of statistics and information derived from valid scientific documents and in the analysis of these indicators in the countries under study, analytical method is used. This comparative study is based on the Human Development Report and Gender Inequality Index of the United Nations Development Program 2018; therefore, the required data are based on these reports. The statistical population of the study consisted of 16 countries in the Middle East (Iran, Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Oman, UAE, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt and Sudan). Gender inequality data, which includes six main variables based on the UN report on economic, social, political and health dimensions. Also in this study, the Analytic hierarchy process method was used to weight and determine the degree of importance of the variables. Finally, the Copra's technique was used to ranking and leveling countries in the Middle East in terms of gender inequality.
Results and discussion
Kuwait ranks first and highest in desirability of lacking gender inequality indicators. After Kuwait, three countries, Libya, Qatar and Saudi Arabia, with Copra's values of 92/479, 81/643 and 81/190 Percent, respectively are in the second to fourth position in Not having of gender inequality. These countries and Kuwait Placed into the category of desirable countries; in fact, the discrimination and difference between men and women in this group is much lower than in other countries. Group of countries that are relatively desirable in terms of gender inequality index includes 4 countries; that is, 25% of countries are as follows; Respectively, Oman ranks 4th with Copra's values of 74/467 percent; UAE with Copra's values of 72/876 percent ranks 6th and Lebanon, and Turkey with 67/360 and 60/065 Copra's values, ranks 7th and 8th. Iran, as the first country, along with the three Tunisia countries - Jordan and Egypt - are in the middle position in terms of gender inequality index. Syria and Iraq, which are war-torn countries, placed into the category of relatively undesirable countries in terms of gender inequality. And finally, Sudan and Yemen are ranked last (15th and 16th) and are in the most unfavorable position in terms of discrimination and inequality between men and women, So that the difference between men and women is at its maximum and men always outnumber women in all things.
The situation of gender inequality in the Middle East countries can be divided into 5 levels: completely favorable, favorable, moderate, unfavorable, and completely unfavorable. The findings suggest that countries such as Syria, Iraq and Yemen that are involved in war and indeed war-torn countries are not in a good status, in fact, gender inequality and discrimination between men and women in these countries is very high. Sudan is also in this group and is not in good status. Most of the Persian Gulf countries with high oil income and low population are in a good position and the differences between men and women in these countries in the context of the variables mentioned in the study are low. Meanwhile, the four countries of Kuwait, Libya, Qatar and Saudi Arabia are in very good status. Oman ranks fifth with Copra's values of 74/467 percent; The UAE ranks sixth, and Lebanon and Turkey rank seventh and eighth, respectively. Iran ranks ninth with a 54/552 percent Copra's values and is in average utility status of gender inequality index.
Therefore, considering the importance of women as a half of the active population in society, the present paper proposes, on the one hand, to increase the participation of women in various economic and social spheres (especially in Yemen, Jordan, Syria and Iran) provide the highest rates of participation of women in the labor market and in the political arena, on the other hand, provide the health facilities and training needed to control fertility (especially in Yemen, Tunisia, Iraq, Egypt, and Sudan) in order to pave the way for the growth of their communities.